In many prominent fraternal organisations, fraternal medals are known as jewels.
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Military decorations are often in shapes such as crosses or stars, but are still loosely called "medals", as in the star-shaped American Medal of Honor. It is as simple as this.
They imitate, at a distance, Roman imperial coins and medallions, but have the heads of gods, animals, or other designs. The surviving example is mounted for wearing as jewellery. In Europe, from the late Middle Ages on, it became common for sovereigns, nobles, and later, intellectuals to commission medals to be given simply as gifts to their political allies to either maintain or gain support of an influential person.
The medals made be made in a range of metals, such as gold, silver-gilt , silver, bronze, and lead, depending on the status of the recipient. They were typically up to about three inches across, and usually featured the head of the donor on the obverse, surrounded by an inscription with their name and title, and their emblem on the reverse, with a learned motto inscribed round the edges. Such medals were not usually intended to be worn, although they might have been set as pendants on a chain.
From the 16th century onward, medals were made, both by rulers for presentation and private enterprise for sale, to commemorate specific events, including military battles and victories, and from this grew the practice of awarding military medals specifically to combatants, though initially only a few of the much higher-ranking officers.
The legend reads, in Greek: The medieval revival seems to have begun around with the extravagant French prince Jean, Duc de Berry , who commissioned a number of large classicising medals that were probably produced in very small numbers, or a unique cast. Only casts in bronze from the originals in precious metal survive, although it is known that at least some medals were also set with jewels, and these may well have been worn on a chain.
This was presumably a commercial venture, but his later medals were mostly commissioned for distribution as gifts by rulers or nobles. Like almost all early Renaissance medals, it was cast rather than die-struck. With each successive cast the medal became slightly smaller, and the numbers that could be produced were probably not large. A lead "proof" was probably often used. The association between medals and the classical revival began to take a rather different form, and the exchange of medals became associated with Renaissance Humanism.
Princes would send humanist writers and scholars medals in recognition of their work, and the humanists began to make their own medals, normally in bronze, to send to their patrons and peers. By the 16th century, medals were increasingly produced by rulers or cities for propaganda purposes.
The artist now cut an intaglio die rather than modelling in relief. German artists had been producing high-quality medals from the beginning of the century, while the French and British were slower to produce fine work.
However, by the late 17th century, most parts of Western Europe could produce fine work. Some medals were also collected, which continues to the present day. Official medals, from which specialized military awards descended, were increasingly produced, but the real growth in military medals did not come until the 19th century.
Devotional medals also became very popular in Catholic countries. During the Reformation there had also been a vigorous tradition of Protestant medals, more polemical than devotional, which continued with the Geuzen medals produced in the Dutch Revolt. Military medals and decorations[ edit ] Main article: Military awards and decorations Military decorations , service awards, and medals are often mistakenly confused with one another. Decoration is a term for awards which require specific acts of heroism or achievement such as the British Victoria Cross or American Silver Star , whereas a service award or campaign medal is awarded for serving in a particular capacity in a particular geographical area and time frame such as the Iraq Campaign Medal.
In either case, an award or decoration may be presented as a medal. The Roman Republic adopted an elaborate system of military awards that included medals called phalerae to be issued to soldiers and units for a variety of achievements.
The practice was revived in the Early Modern period, and medals began to be worn on the chest as part of standard military uniform. The United States Continental Congress awarded the Fidelity Medallion as early as , to three specified men for a particular incident, as a one-off award, which was characteristic of early military decorations.
In , the Badge of Military Merit was established, and mostly awarded to non-officers. Other nations followed with decorations such as the British Army Gold Medal from , though this only went to senior officers, and the Prussian Iron Cross from Medals were not awarded to all combatants in a war or battle until the 19th century, when the Waterloo Medal was the first British medal given to all present, at the Battle of Waterloo and all associated actions in By the middle of the 19th century, the number of awards used had greatly expanded in most countries to something near modern levels.
The United States' Medals of Honor l to r: Army, Navy, Air Force , for "Conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty". An order tends to be the most elaborate of military decorations, typically awarded for distinguished services to a nation or to the general betterment of humanity. Orders are distinguished from other forms of decoration in that they often imply membership in an organization or association of others that have received the same award.
The practice of conferring orders originates with the mediaeval fraternities of knighthood , some of which still exist and are still awarded.
While most modern orders have no roots in knighthood, they still tend to carry over the terms of their historic counterparts, and terms such as knight, commander, officer, members, and so on are still commonly found as ranks.
A military order may use a medal as its insignia, however, most tend to have a unique badge or a type of plaque specifically designed for an emblem. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States Government , and is an example of a decoration that is modeled as a military order, even though not expressly defining itself as one. It is bestowed on a member of the United States Armed Forces who distinguishes himself, "conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States.
The medal of the U. Army depicts the head of Minerva , the U. Navy medal shows a scene of Minerva doing battle with Discord, and the U. Air Force depicts the Statue of Liberty upon its medal. Military decorations, including medals and orders, are usually presented to the recipient in a formal ceremony. Medals are normally worn on more formal occasions and are suspended from a ribbon of the medal's colours on the left breast, while a corresponding ribbon bar is to be worn to common events where medals would be inappropriate or impractical to wear.
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Medallionaire App Review Binary options are regarded as one of the most lucrative methods for earning money in the world. Yet, there are numerous traders who refuse to understand the nuances of this method and, therefore, continue to falter. A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc, normally of metal, carrying a design, usually on both sides. They typically have a commemorative purpose of some kind, and many are given as awards.