Short for jet plane, jet aeroplane.
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At the time, her score of was the highest measured result recorded.
Without assistance, Rick was asked to read and spell a list of words with consonant-vowel-consonant patterns. It was determined from this assessment that Rick could only read 5 out of the words on the list.
The school psychologist assisted the special education teacher in developing procedures including integrity checks during baseline, intervention, and maintenance sessions. Baseline word identification and spelling probes were developed and consisted of 10 words that were randomly selected from a list of words. The item probe was given over three sessions. It was determined that Rick's mean identification score was 5.
Word boxes, an intervention described in detail in the intervention section of this chapter, was implemented to help Rick make letter-sound correspondences while attempting to identify words. Word identification and spelling probes were administered daily at the completion of intervention.
They contained sets of words with consonant-vowel-consonant patterns taken from the list of words. Rick obtained a mean score of 8. Maintenance probes were also administered, and Rick maintained a high level of performance on probes. Figure 1 depicts a graphic representation of Rick's word identification and spelling performance overtime.
Continuous progress monitoring of Rick's word identification and spelling performance Best practices This section provides a description of evidenced-based instructional interventions for students who have difficulty with word identification and reading comprehension. Since many educational professionals are likely to be aware of some of the traditional approaches to literacy instruction that have been used over many years, many of the approaches presented in this section will be those that are considered contemporary approaches for meeting the needs of diverse learners.
Of course, the interventions described are not exhaustive of all approaches for the amelioration of reading difficulties. For interventions, it should be realized that "one size does not fit all.
General components of effective instruction Whether word identification or comprehension interventions are implemented, general psychological components of teaching and learning that apply to how children acquire literacy should be incorporated in lessons.
School psychologists can work collaboratively with educators by helping them incorporate the following critical components during instruction. Scaffolding Several instructional approaches to word identification and reading comprehension employ scaffolding. Scaffolding, a term coined by Wood, Bruner, and Ross , means that necessary support needs to be given to a child and gradually faded once the child approximates independent functioning while completing tasks.
The concept of scaffolding is rooted in Vygotsky's notions about how the mind develops through interactions between teachers and students and how children may be able to achieve more anyone thinking about implementing any of these than what was initially expected given the proper cultural tools.
Instructors who embrace scaffolding procedures often are those who view themselves and the materials they design or select as mediators of learners' development. Shaping A behavioral concept that is similar to scaffolding is shaping. Shaping, a term described by Skinner , means to elicit reinforcers for successive approximations toward completing an objective.
Delivering reinforcers for efforts made toward achieving a goal can be considered as ways of providing support to students. This cannot be stressed enough when working with children with reading difficulties. Many children with severe reading problems will become extremely frustrated in the process of becoming literate because they will not experience success immediately. Reinforcers may not have been a systematic part of students' instructional histories.
In other words, contingencies for reading behavior may have been inconsistent or delivered haphazardly rather than in successive approximations to desired reading behavior. These are the children who grow up and find reading not enjoyable and may not experience reading as a reinforcer e.
These individuals may later find themselves in limited employment and social situations. Therefore, it is crucial that educators and parents shape reading behaviors through praise and rewards contingent upon efforts made at achieving reading skills. Connecting to prior knowledge Effective instruction includes being aware of what students know. Assessing student's prior understandings and experiences will help teachers facilitate links between what students know and what they need to learn.
How quickly one grasps information presented in text depends largely on one's prior knowledge of the content Gambrell et.
Students with learning problems often have limited prior knowledge and experiences on which to "hook" new information. It is especially imperative that teachers provide opportunities for students to gain background knowledge through discussions and activities before students are presented with text that is foreign to them. Constructing Meaning While specific literacy skills are important to teach, educators must keep in mind that the purpose of reading is to construct meaning from text.
Capturing the plot of a story, following instructions for putting things together, and learning about current events are among some of the purposes for reading. Several scholars claim that children acquire decoding, spelling, grammar, and comprehension skills more easily if the context from which they are presented is personally meaningful Gambrell et al.
Higher-order reasoning and new meanings about text can result from children who were provided with meaning-based literacy activities at school and home. Motivating students Motivating students to read is a real challenge particularly for the upper elementary and secondary school teachers.
Young children are more likely to attribute their failures to insufficient effort while older students who struggle with reading often attribute their failures to factors such as task difficulty and unfounded teacher perceptions e. Literacy activities should be authentic, integrated with other content areas, interesting, and occur within a social context so that students are motivated to participate in them Pressely, Providing opportunities to learn Within the time allotted for literacy activities, students need opportunities to make frequent responses during oral and silent reading as well as writing lessons.
Students also need plenty of opportunities to practice new skills that are learned. This instructional component cannot be emphasized enough while students are acquiring literacy skills.
Children with learning disabilities and mental retardation need more opportunities to practice than their peers McCormick, Over-learning leads to transferring skills to other tasks more easily. Word level interventions Many students who experience difficulty identifying words are not aware that spoken words are made up of discrete sound units Adams, Phonemic awareness exercises also help children operate on sounds of spoken language through phonemic blending, segmentation, deletion, and substitution activities.
The purpose of implementing interventions that target word level problems is to help children eventually read words by sight or with automaticity. Some children have difficulty reading words automatically because they do not possess strategies in making letter-sound associations.
Word level interventions consist of phonics instructional approaches. Phonics incorporates methods by which children learn letter-sound associations. Stahl, Duffy-Hester, and Stahl stated that good phonics instruction consists of developing the alphabetic principle, developing phonemic awareness, providing familiarity with forming letters, and providing sufficient practice in reading words. They also indicated that good phonics instruction should not be rule-based and does not dominate literacy instruction programs.
Many of the rule-based approaches used workbook exercises that required children to memorize and recall rules. Clymer's review of commonly used words in children's reading materials revealed that rules were rarely applicable to most words encountered in texts. Phonic approaches There are a variety of approaches to teaching phonics. Rule-based approaches are considered to be analytic approaches to teaching phonics Cunningham, Children are taught some words and asked to analyze them by breaking the words down into their component parts followed by making phonic generalizations about the words.
For example, students may read a list of words on a worksheet and mark whether the vowel in each word makes a "long" or a "short" sound. Synthetic approaches to teaching phonics, on the other hand, involve explicit teaching of letter-sound associations.
During practice lessons, students pronounce sounds in isolation and then blend them to make words McCormick, This approach infuses behavior analysis principles of teaching children to systematically progress from one phonic skill to the next. Initially, individual sounds are taught and then children are asked to blend sounds to form words.
Cueing, feedback, and opportunities to make many responses are provided during every lesson. Drawing from decades of her own research, Cunningham advocated teaching phonics through primarily an anologic approach. In an anologic approach, children are taught to become word pattern detectors and use words or parts of words they know to figure out unknown words. For instance, if a child can read and spell the word "sit" then the student will also be able to read and spell the words "fit," "kit," "bit," "hit" and other words that belong to this family of words.
Cunningham's Four Blocks program follows predominately an anologic approach to teaching phonics Cunningham, The Four Blocks program is a combination of four major reading approaches that emphasize multilevel instruction.
This program includes guided reading, self-selected reading, writing, and word study approaches. The word study approaches best illustrate the kinds of activities that would represent teaching phonics anologically. Doing the word wall, making words, and guessing the covered word are among some of the activities included in the word study portion of the program. Doing the word wall consists of putting words up around the classroom where children can easily see them.
Displayed words should be carefully selected and correspond to those that children commonly need in their writing. Only approximately five new words need to be added to the wall per week.
Words that typically cause confusion can be written in a variety of colors so they stand out among those written in black. What is the make of the car? There were three horses running in a race. Their names were Tally-ho, Sonny Boy, and Juanita. Tally-ho unfortunately broke his ankle at the start of the race. Mr Smith owned a brown and white three-year old. Mr Bailey lost heavily although his horse almost won. The horse that won was black.
This race was the first race that the horse owned by Mr Lewis had run. What was the name of the horse that won? These fellows fail to realize that intelligence doesn't always translate to real-world ability, and thus they tend to overestimate the quality of their work.
Sure is getting crowded at the smart end of the bell curve. Continue Reading Below Advertisement It seems to go back to the old saying about how the wisest man is the one who realizes he knows nothing.
One study found that 23 percent of college freshman believed in the paranormal, compared with 31 percent of seniors and 34 percent of graduate students. Which leads us to wonder So self-destructive habits are traits of the low-class and stupid, right? The thing is, the great minds have something in common with proverbial death-prone kitties: Researchers have finally begun to understand the link between curiosity and intelligence on the molecular level, thanks to scientists from the University of Toronto and Mount Sinai Hospital who discovered a protein in an under-explored part of the brain that controls both traits.
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